1/Pyrrhic victory

Sunakkhatta left the order in disgust because the Buddha failed to defuse the crisis with Kosala and was forced into a humiliating retreat. Why, Sunakkhatta may have wondered, did he not multiply his bodies in a display of supernormal power before the awestruck troops? … On reaching his homeland, he spreads the news of the Buddha’s defeat and denounces him to the assembly: “The wanderer Gotama doesn’t have any superhuman states, any special knowledge or vision worthy of the noble ones. What he teaches is just hammered out by reasoning, following his own line of inquiry as it occurs to him. And all it leads to is the end of reactivity!”

— Stephen Batchelor in After Buddhism, quoting The Great Discourse on the Lion’s Roar

America, Israel, and the curse of “special providence”

At The Atlantic, a nice, if occasionally pat survey of how the collision of America’s propensity for fantasy with postmodernism led to our (explicitly) post-truth present.

At Ha’aretz, and straight from Bibi Netanyahu’s mouth, a reminder that Israel, for somewhat different reasons, has reached the same place (before November 8, 2016, I was convinced that Israel had it much worse, actually).

As Netanyahu pivots from Cruzism to self-conscious Trumpism, one important difference in the left-baiting, media-baiting rhetoric is clear.

It’s in Trump’s interest to paint the recent past in apocalyptic colors—with the black devil with the funny name hard at work for the last eight years, how can you expect Dear Leader to undo it all in one day?

Whereas Bibi’s line—those leftists are all doom-and-gloom, but where’s the doom and gloom?—has been the Israeli right’s hobby-horse ever since the start-up nation dodged recession and intifada, against all odds. In the cynical logic of grandmaster Bibi, this means that all you need is to believe him, and the ax will never fall.

It’s a strange thing to have roots in, and to love, the 2 countries whose belief in a special providence is driving them off a cliff. Neither Trump nor Netanyahu—both consummate cynics—is a theist. But their power bases are full of true believers who really do think that God will deliver in a pinch for America and Israel, no matter how deep a hole they’ve dug for themselves.

Perhaps this is why inequality and the collapse of social cohesion—careening toward emergency levels in both countries—are nowhere to be found on the agenda. With God mounted on the wall in a glass cabinet, figuring out the nature of the crisis just doesn’t matter much.

Summer reading list

If you’re interested.

So far:

Our Mathematical Universe by Max Tegmark
The Soft Machine by William S. Burroughs
Fooled By Randomness by Nassim Taleb
One Way Down (Or Another) by Calder Lorenz
The Map And The Territory by Michel Houellebecq
Meditations by Marcus Aurelius

In progress:

After Buddhism by Stephen Batchelor
The Gift of Fear by Gavin de Becker

On deck:

The Enigma of Reason by Hugo Mercier and Dan Sperber
Mindful Tech by David M. Levy
Ulysses by James Joyce

Perennial online favorites:

Gene Expression
Meaningness
Slate Star Codex
Qualia Computing
Edge
Aeon

And—summer listening:

Offa Rex
Kacy & Clayton
Basement Signal
Led Zeppelin
Morrison Hotel by The Doors
No Blues
Bardo Pond
Hope Sandoval and the Warm Inventions
Amalia Rodrigues
Zeca Afonso

Hearing the self as sound, not meaning

Ego dissolution offers vivid experiential proof, not only that things can be different, but that the self that conditions experience is just a heuristic, not an unchangeable, persisting thing.

Philip Gerrans and Chris Letheby at Aeon on psychedelics as a spur to work more constructively with the bundle of cognitive mechanisms we call the self.

One of the more exceptional pieces in the flood of recent popular work on psychedelics and cognitive psychology.

Three observations from Lisbon (and a link)

1. While trying to find my way from the main bus station in Lisbon to a metro station two blocks away, I took out my phone to make sure I was walking in the right direction. On opening Google Maps, I saw that my app was trying to navigate me to Kılıç Dağı, the Turkish name for Mount Saphon, the Canaanite/Ugaritic Mount Olympus.

2. Anyone who feels comfortable in Spanish should consider devoting a modest amount of time to learning Portuguese. The return on investment is huge.

3. If you’re left-of-center on all political issues (like many people I know), think about it: what’s more likely? That one side is right about every single thing? Or that many or most of your beliefs are mostly determined by mood affiliation and cultural preferences?

Link: The latest episode of Sam Harris’ Waking Up podcast, Living With Violence, a conversation with Gavin de Becker. Sam didn’t interject much, but it’s probably to his credit: de Becker, who I’d never heard of before, is really gripping.

For the love of Coimbra

I was originally planning on 2 nights here, but I instantly fell in love and extended to 5, moving from a mother’s house on a ridge on the north bank of the river, to a daughter’s on the south bank.

At first I thought it was a matter of Coimbra resembling Granada: the live music (substitute fado for flamenco, they say, and you’ll instantly grok the difference between Portuguese and Spanish temperaments) on hilly side-streets, the vague intimations of a Moorish past (much, much stronger in Granada, because there were 400+ more years of it), the spectacle of the gleaming monument quarter, an Iberian acropolis, looming over every point in the city.

But it was the early August weather, 90 and dry by day and 60 with a breeze at night, that clued me into the ghost’s actual identity: summers in Jerusalem. A friendly Brazilian goth who took care of my apartment in Porto warned me to choose Braga instead of Coimbra for my next stop, but that could not have been more wrong for me. Galicia and northern Portugal are humid and hewn of dark stone.

In Coimbra, the unsparing summer sun reflects off white stone squares and whitewashed façades—achieving a similar effect to the slightly golden limestone that by statute must cover everything in Jerusalem. Even the cathedrals here are bright, airy, and inspiring of contemplation; normally the aesthetics of medieval Western Christendom don’t do it for me at all.

Even the Coimbra fado, “Fado Dos Olhos Claros”, which hypnotized me as I heard it performed on the steps of San Tiago Church, rang with notes of the Jewish liturgy. Student and alumni troubadours ply their melodies on Coimbra’s streets wearing impossibly hot and heavy black cloaks, much like half of Jewish Jerusalem. And yesterday over mediocre falafel, the sight of a white trailer across the street announcing Aqui fazem-se milagres, no metal (“Here, make yourself miracles—in metal”) inspired me to write a strange poem about language and metallurgy in the Proto-Semitic community of the 4th millennium BCE:

In this trailer by the River Mondego,
miracles in metal
are blueprinted and set
in kludgy type—

in the beginning was
the three-letter root
which unfolded like protein
ripe for diverse expressions
and levels of analysis—

a formless aleph
innocent of glottal dreams
trailing black copper slag
into the Dead Sea.

The dial of significance

When the soul lies down in that grass,

the world is too full to talk about.

– Rumi

Is anyone familiar with the cognitive psychology literature (even terminology would be a good start!) on how we ascribe particular levels of significance to things?

That is to say, in everyday consciousness, objects, events, and agents feel significant/meaningful to varying degrees. These differences in significance tend to be stable across time, and seem to follow an intuitive evolutionary logic.

“Significance” or “meaningfulness”, as I see it, is a bounded conversation between internal states and feedback from the environment—the machinery of significance ascription is neither entirely scripted at birth, nor generated entirely by external stimuli.
 
By extension, significance levels don’t come fixed, but under normal conditions, it’s impossible to reprogram them arbitrarily.
 
That’s not the end of it, though. Experiments in philosophy/conceptual framing offer a peek into the wider possibility space. High school nihilism shows you that it’s possible to turn the significance dial all the way down to 0. Ecstatic, pantheistic spirituality—”everythingism”, you might call it—allows you to crank it up to, well, infinity.
Thought experiments will rarely get you there, though. We have a whole class of serotonergic compounds whose most fundamental, universal effect seems to be messing with significance ascription.

Is the answer in the serotonin system, then?

“To fathom hell or soar angelic / take a pinch of psychedelic,” wrote Humphry Osmond. But rarely does the psychonaut brush up against classical, embodied celestial beings. Hell, most generically, is the significance dial at 0; to soar angelic is to take in reality at significance-level infinity.*

*There are also experiences of pleasant meaninglessness and agonizing hyper-significance out there, so take my heaven/hell framing with a grain of salt.

Allen Ginsberg’s Lovecraftian Prophecy of the Internet (Palo Alto, 1959)

“It is a multiple million eyed monster
it is hidden in all its elephants and selves
it hummeth in the electric typewriter
it is electricity connected to itself, if it hath wires
it is a vast Spiderweb …

And I have made an image of the monster here
and I will make another
it feels like Cryptozoids
it creeps and undulates beneath the sea
it is coming to take over the city
it invades beneath every Consciousness
it is delicate as the Universe
it makes me vomit
because I am afraid I will miss its appearance
it appears anyway
it appears anyway in the mirror
it washes out of the the mirror and drowns the beholder …

it was there
it was not mine
I wanted to use it for myself
to be heroic
but it is not for sale to this consciousness
it goes its own way forever
it will complete all creatures
it will be the radio of the future
it will hear itself in time
it wants a rest
it is tired of hearing and seeing itself
it wants another form another victim
it wants me
it gives me good reason
it gives me reason to exist
it gives me endless answers

Flags and banners waving in transcendence
One image in the end remains myriad-eyed in Eternity
This is the Work! This is the Knowledge! This is the End of man!

— Allen Ginsberg, “Lysergic Acid”

Writing in Palo Alto in 1959, Ginsberg is purportedly talking about acid.